Navius consultants publish articles and white papers on a variety of energy, climate change, and economic modeling topics.


Featured Research Brief

Review of British Columbia’s RLCFRR Energy Effectiveness Ratios

November 2018

Energy effectiveness ratios” (“EERs”) define the relative energy efficiency of using different transportation fuels in British Columbia’s Renewable and Low-Carbon Fuel Requirements Regulation. EERs are used to calculate the greenhouse gases avoided when using an alternative transportation fuel (e.g. an electric vehicle rather than one fuelled with gasoline or diesel). Navius has analyzed the current research and data that is available to define EERs for the substitution of gasoline and diesel with electricity.

Featured Journal Article

How policy can build the plug-in electric vehicle market: Insights from the REspondent-based Preference And Constraints (REPAC) model

Wolinetz, M. & J. Axsen.


This study, published in the April 2017 issue of Technological Forecasting & Social Change journal, describes a plug-in electric vehicle market uptake model and summarises its results analysing the impacts of different plug-in electric vehicle deployment policies.

Other Journal Articles

Melton, N., J. Axsen & S. Goldberg. 2017. Evaluating plug-in electric vehicle policies in the context of long-term greenhouse gas reduction goals: Comparing 10 Canadian provinces using the PEV policy report card. Energy Policy, 107, 381-393.

Bataille, C. & N. Melton. 2017. Energy efficiency and economic growth: A retrospective CGE analysis for Canada from 2002 to 2012Energy Economics, 64, 118-130.

Wolinetz & Axsen. 2017. How policy can build the plug-in electric vehicle market: Insights from the REspondent-based Preference And Constraints (REPAC) model. Technological Forecasting and Social Change 117: 238-250.

Melton, N., J. Axsen & D. Sperling. 2016. Moving beyond alternative fuel hype to decarbonize transportationNature Energy, 1, 16013. Learn More ➥

Bataille, C., N. Melton & M. Jaccard. 2015. Policy uncertainty and diffusion of carbon capture and storage in an optimal region. Climate Policy, 15(5): 565-582.

Jaccard, M., N. Melton & J. Nyboer. 2011. Institutions and Processes for Scaling Up Renewables: Run-of-River Hydropower in British Columbia. Energy Policy, 39(7): 4042-4050.

Peters, J., C. Bataille, N. Rivers, & M. Jaccard. 2010. Taxing Emissions, Not Income: How to Moderate the Regional Impact of Federal Environment Policy. C.D. Howe Institute, 314: Toronto, ON.